International experiences

In Indonesia, the local government of Jakarta has implemented the Trans-Jakarta Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system, the main idea of this program is BRT can transport more people, travelling time is fast and consume less the road as private vehicles do (Hook, 2003). In the study of BRT in Asia, Naoko Matsumoto suggested that the BRT consume less energy than private vehicles and is capable to reduce almost all of adverse impacts caused by motorisation such as: noise, congestion, accidents and toxic air. This experience is relevant to Hanoi’s 36 classic streets because Hanoi does not have the fast- bus system yet and the favourite vehicles used to travel by Hanoi’s people are private vehicles.

The vehicle quota system was successfully applied in Singapore since 1990. The main idea of this approach is that prior to new vehicle registration, the owner of vehicles must have the Certificate of Entitlement (COE), which can be taken through the bidding of local government. The issuing numbers of COE each year depends on the evaluation, done by Land Transport Authority, of current road condition. The key advantage of this approach is that new vehicles registration is predicted annually and always under the control of government. It is related to Hanoi because Hanoi is confronting with problem of too many cars and motorbikes in small area such as 36 classic streets.

Singapore has effectively implemented the Electronic Road Pricing to address the traffic congestion problem since 1998. The key point of this solution is that the road is treated as a commodity. The fee to enter the central area, where traffic congestion often happens, is highly expensive, especially at peak hour. The owners of private vehicles are aware of high cost and discouraged to enter. It is relevant to Hanoi’ 36 classic streets because it is the heart of Hanoi capital and traffic congestion always occurres everyday, especially at peak hour.

The car free zone policy was successfully implemented in many old and small cities around the world. Topp & Pharoah (1994) has revealed that since the old Hanseatic town of Lubeck applied the car free zone in 1989, it has enjoyed the fruitful outcome such as highly supported by community, traffic congestion was solved adequately, improvement in air quality, more space for pedestrians, cyclist and kids, the area attractiveness was enhanced and more tourists visiting. The vehicles were prohibited from 10 am to 6 pm, but there were still some exceptions for ambulance and firing cars, local resident vehicles, goods deliver and hotel cars or trucks. This experience is highly relevant to 36 classic streets in term of its area, both are small, cultural, historic and tourism area.